Chefs’ guide to a traditional bolognese sauce and its origins | RACV (2023)

Food & Wine

Chefs’ guide to a traditional bolognese sauce and its origins | RACV (1)

Tianna Nadalin

Posted July 12, 2022

Looking for an authentic spaghetti bolognese recipe? Chef Guy Grossi shares his go-to spag bol sauce, and takes us through the authentic history of ragu alla Bolognese.

If one dish has become synonymous with Italian cuisine, it’s spaghetti bolognese.

From Italy’s Emilia-Romagna to New York to Carlton, the saucy dish has twirled its way into the hearts of pasta-eating enthusiasts everywhere. Spag bol is so ubiquitous that a quick search for it on Google returns almost as many results as there are people in its beloved country of origin.

But, contrary to popular belief, this household hall-of-famer is far from an Italian hallmark.

Walk into any typical trattoria in Italy and you won’t find spaghetti bolognaise on the menu. Trying to order it will return only blank stares from your waiter. And if you do find something resembling the moreish meat-based dish, it will have very little in common with its Aussie-fied counterpart.

“Traditional bolognese comes from Emilia-Romagna, from the city of Bologna, in Italy’s north,” says chef, cookbook author and restaurateur Guy Grossi. “But there are many different versions, which is why it can be difficult to pinpoint one true recipe. Different families make it in different ways and it becomes very regional and territorial. It even changes from one village to the next and people get very nostalgic and protective over their way of making it.”

Chefs’ guide to a traditional bolognese sauce and its origins | RACV (2)

Fresh, not dried, pasta should be used. Photo: Getty.

(Video) How to make Bolognese | Gennaro Contaldo | Italian Special

Bologenese's saucy beginnings

Unlike the thick mince-and-tomato medley we’ve come to know and love; in Bologna, ragu alla Bologneseis a rich, meat-based sauce made with chopped beef, bacon, a few vegetables and way less tomato than you’d probably expect.

What’s more, garlic in ragu is to the Bolognese what pineapple on pizza is to the Neapolitans: high treason.

Ragu purists even go as far as to specify the type of pasta with which it is acceptably served... and it’s not spaghetti. Fresh tagliatelle, the flat, egg-based pasta, is ragu’s traditional accompaniment. And, according to original Bolognan pasta law, it should be exactly eight millimetres wide.

So bastardised has bolognese been by its omnipresence in global gastronomy that, in 1982, Bologna’s Chamber of Commerce submitted theofficial recipeto the Italian Academy of Cooking in order to clarify, once and for all, the true recipe for the sauce that bears its name.

The birth of bolognaise

Though ours might not be the most authentic interpretation, the significance – and deliciousness – of bolognese is not lost on Victorians. We have been paying homage to the pseudo-Italian staple since 1952, when theAustralian Women’s Weeklypublished a recipe for a pasta-inspired casserole called ‘Spaghetti Bolognaise’. (The French spelling should have been enough to tip off the local pasta authorities that something was NQR.)

This dinner-party crowd-pleaser called for the addition of highly prohibited ingredients such as Worcestershire sauce, garlic and non-specific cheese (parmesan– or parmigiano reggiano– to be precise, is the only cheese permitted in ragu alla Bolognese), and suggested it be baked until “bubbly and brown”. Because if there’s one thing we love more than spaghetti, it’s a shortcut.

Despite its less-than-authentic origins, the highly controversial and widely debated Italo-Australian dish has been a mainstay of mid-week mealtimes for decades and it’s precisely its versatility, and ability to add your own flavour, that has made it one of the most-loved recipes in the world.

“It doesn’t matter how you make it– it’s delicious,” Guy says. “It’s one of those things you put in your mouth and every timeit feels like home. For me, it makes me immediately think of Sunday lunches and family. It’s comfortable and exciting and has this lovely richness and depth of flavour that is heart-warming. It’s warm emotionally as well as physically.”

Spaghetti saucery

Even among Australia’s foodie literati, there is little agreement about what goes into the ultimate bolognese. Matt Preston’s recipe calls for the addition of anchovy fillets and soy sauce, George Calombaris gives his a Greek twist with lemon and cinnamon, Donna Hay uses bay leaves for flavour while Neil Perry adds pork to the beef and bacon base.

But despite what the traditional sauce cognoscenti would have you believe, the beauty of bolognese is that there are myriad ways to make it, all of which produce a delicious pasta-topper that is, even if only loosely, based on a true story.

Pasta has been a staple on the menu at Guy’s long-standing CDB eatery, Grossi Florentino, for nearly two decades but, in reality, he has been cooking it for far longer than that. Having grown up in an Italian family (both of his parents migrated from northern Italy), with his father a chef, Italian cookery was in his blood.

In 1996, he was even awarded the prestigious L’insegna Del Ristorante Italianoby the presdident of Italy, for his dedication to championing ‘La Cucina Italiana’ in Australia.

Having spent a lifetime learning the art of Italian cookery, Guy is a consummate connoisseur. And, though he says there is no one ‘right’ way to make bolognese, his version comes pretty close to pasta perfection.

Chefs’ guide to a traditional bolognese sauce and its origins | RACV (3)

It should be rich and meaty, not swimming in tomato. Photo: Getty.

(Video) Regional Italian Cuisine | Part 1: North of Italy

Guy Grossi's guide to Bolognese basics

Beef or pork?

We’ve already established that traditional bolognese is made from beef but, according to the official recipe, diaphragm, belly or shoulder are the permitted cuts. No mince here. The recipe also calls for bacon (which, in Italy, is generally pancetta– bacon’s unsmoked relative). Oh, and if you dice the pancetta with anything other than a crescent-shaped knife– forget about it.

“We use a mixture of meats,” Guy says. “Mainly ground beef, but also some pork and chicken for richness.My mother is from Verona, in the north of Italy, where they make some magnificent pork ragus. But traditionally bolognese is made from beef.”

The ideal base (soffrito)

Onion, carrot and celery all make the cut here but, notably, garlic does not. To start, fry off the pancetta in some olive oil then add the finely chopped vegetables. The original recipe states that vegetables must be finely diced (however Guy says heprefers to put in whole carrot and celery for flavouring and take it out at the end). These should be sauteed, slowly, on low heat, until the onions become translucent and start to caramelise. This is known as the soffrito.

“This is the part people often rush,” Guy says. “The onions need to get that lovely brown colour to them. Making sure they are caramelised property is what adds sweetness and sugar to offset the tartness of the tomatoes.”

The meat in the middle

Caramelisation is not just for the onions. Guy says the beef should develop a bit of a crust, too, which will add depth to the flavour.He also advises to hold off on seasoning at this point as it can interfere with the browning of the meat.

“Sometimes it might give off a bit of liquid,” he says. “Wait for that to dry and absorb and for the meat to get nice and brown. You don’t want grey meat – you want it to be almost crispy before adding the wet ingredients.”

Bring it all together

Once your meat is done, add some white wine and allow it to completely evaporate before adding your tomato, stock (broth) and seasoning, which is simply salt and pepper. Bring it to a simmer and then leave it to bubble away, gently, for a minimum of 1.5 to two hours.

“The longer you cook it, the more flavour you extract,” he says. “You don’t want it to be ready in half an hour.”

Notable exclusions

Herb your enthusiasm

It might look nice as a garnish but basil, and herbs in general, are not included in the ’82 classification; however, that hasn’t deterred Guy from adding them to his.

“I wouldn’t put basil in there. It’s not the right flavour profile,” he says. ”Parsley is the main one for me, but we put a little bit of sage and chilli in there as well.”

Stop milking it

Milk is perhaps the most contentious ingredient in the bolognese-making process, with proponents of the dairy addition swearing that it helps to balance acidity and reduce richness.

“This is traditional,” Guy says. “But I don’t do it. I have tried it a couple of times but, for me, it doesn’t really do a great deal for the sauce.”

Chefs’ guide to a traditional bolognese sauce and its origins | RACV (4)

Parsley, not basil, is the appropriate garnish. Photo: Getty.

(Video) How One Chef Is Fighting To Preserve A Cooking Tool As Old As Civilization Itself | Still Standing

Guy Grossi’s ultimate beef bolognese



Time to make

1.5 hours



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  • 100ml olive oil
  • 1 large onion, finely chopped
  • 3 cloves garlic, finely chopped
  • 800g premium beef mince
  • 100g pork mince
  • 100g chicken mince
  • 1 tsp finely chopped sage
  • 1 tsp chilli, chopped
  • ¼ bunch flat-leaf parsley, chopped
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 2 cloves, ground
  • ½ nutmeg, grated
  • Sea salt
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 300g tomato paste
  • 200ml red wine
  • 1.5 L water


  1. Heat the olive oil in a large pot and saute the onion and garlic over medium heat for four to five minutes until soft and golden.
  2. Add all the meat and saute, stirring continuously until golden brown; break up the meat using the top of a whisk.
  3. Mix in the herbs and spices and season with salt and pepper.
  4. Add the tomato paste and cook for two minutes.
  5. Pour in the wine and reduce by half.
  6. Add the water and mix well.
  7. Bring to the boil then reduce the heat and simmer gently for 60 minutes or until rich in consistency.
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What is the origin of Bolognese sauce? ›

What is traditional Bolognese made from? ›

Authentic Bolognese Sauce (Ragù alla Bolognese) is an Italian pasta sauce made with ground beef, pancetta, vegetables – onion, carrot, celery – and tomato passata.

Where was Bolognese sauce invented? ›

Contrary to popular assumption, it has no definitive tie to the city of Bologna, in northern Italy. Historians generally agree that the dish originated in Imola, a city that sits just west of Bologna, and is home to the earliest documented ragù sauce, dating from the end of the 18th century.

What is the difference between American and traditional Bolognese? ›

Bolognese is a kind of ragù (the Italian word for meat sauce), original from Bologna, Italy. It's very different from your usual American meat sauce, often a tomato-based sauce simmered with ground beef. Bolognese is much thicker, creamier (milk is one of the ingredients) and with just a touch of tomato.

Why does spaghetti bolognese not exist in Italy? ›

In Italy, this sauce is generally not served with spaghetti because it tends to fall off the pasta and stay on the plate. Instead, the people of Bologna traditionally serve their famous meat sauce with tagliatelle (tagliatelle alla bolognese).

Do Italians put garlic in bolognese? ›

The official ingredients are a mixture of pork and beef mince, carrots, onions, celery, tomato paste, a little wine (red or white), and sometimes milk, plus seasoning. Surprisingly for Brits, Italians don't put garlic in their ragù.

How do Italians have bolognese? ›

In Italy, Ragu Bolognese is traditionally served with Tagliatelle. And preferably fresh egg Tagliatelle. Although I have been served pappardelle with the sauce. And of course, always cooked to al dente.

Does traditional Bolognese have tomatoes? ›

The registered recipe states that authentic Bolognese sauce must contain onions, celery, carrots, pancetta, ground beef, tomatoes, milk, and white wine. Of course, there is no single recipe for Italian Bolognese sauce; the ratios vary, but the basic ingredients remain the same.

Do Italians put sugar in Bolognese sauce? ›

"A pinch of sugar is a Southern Italian trick that was used when the sauce was made with end-of-season tomatoes that did not get ripe, or the tomatoes were so tart they needed to be balanced," Chiarello explained to Epicurious.

How do you get rich flavor in bolognese? ›

You can cheat in more flavour by “seasoning” the tomatoes with a little sugar and lemon juice now too. During cooking, you can further improve your meat sauce by adding other flavourings to boost complexity; a splash of worcestershire or even some soy which are both especially good with beef mince.

What is the difference between a ragù and a bolognese? ›

They're not the same. In Italian, “Ragù” is a hearty meat sauce made of ground meat, vegetables, wine and some tomatoes. “Bolognese” is also a meat sauce, but it's a regional variation prepared in the style of Bologna hence the name: Ragù Bolognese.

What do Italians eat with bolognese? ›

Traditional service and use

In Bologna ragù is traditionally paired and served with tagliatelle made with eggs and northern Italy's soft wheat flour. Acceptable alternatives to fresh tagliatelle include other broad flat pasta shapes, such as pappardelle or fettuccine, and tube shapes, such as rigatoni and penne.

What is the best meat for bolognese? ›

What's the best meat for bolognese sauce? I find it's most convenient to make bolognese with a 50/50 blend of ground beef & ground pork, which has a great amount of fat & flavor to help develop the flavors of the sauce. I love adding a bit of pancetta to the mix for extra rich flavor.

What do Americans call Bolognese sauce? ›

The ragù alla bolognese is a sauce containing minced meat which is not used, in the tradition, as spaghetti sauce.

What makes bolognese taste like bolognese? ›

As far as its taste, it will have a meaty heartiness from the browned meats, a sweet tang from the rich tomatoes, as well as an herbal kick from the various Italian spices used. If you've ever enjoyed a pasta dish with meat and tomato-based sauce, it was likely a variation of a bolognese recipe.

Is spaghetti bolognese different in Italy? ›

Rather than "spaghetti bolognese," what you'll actually find in Italy is Ragù alla Bolognese, which is their equivalent meat-based sauce. However it's rarely served with spaghetti — Italians tend to go for a stronger pasta type with a greater surface area to hold the sauce, such as tagliatelle.

What pasta to use for bolognese? ›

For Meat Sauces

Known as Bolognese in Italy, these classic slow-simmered sauces are often a Sunday treat at Nonna's house. If you want to best capture these hearty sauces, serve them with traditional tube-shaped pasta—like Rigatoni and Tortiglioni—or deep scoopable shapes like Shells and Orecchiette.

What do Italians call spaghetti? ›

Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italian word spaghetto, which is a diminutive of spago, meaning 'thin string' or 'twine'.

Did Romans eat spaghetti bolognese? ›

Spaghetti Bolognese – Among the most common Rome food myths I hear, people ask often where they may find spaghetti Bolognese. This is another dish that is not Roman, and not Italian, but Italian-American.

How do Italians eat ragù? ›

Italian Tradition

Ragù is a wonderful topping for a plate of pasta. It goes perfectly with tagliatelle, but it can also be enjoyed with short pasta like penne. Ragù is also a main ingredient in another essential recipe in Italian cuisine, lasagna.

Why do Italians put milk in Bolognese? ›

According to our Food Director Amira, not only does milk add a rich flavour to the bolognese, but it also helps cut through the acidity of the tomatoes and red wine. It also makes the mince meat nice and tender, creating that melt-in-your-mouth deliciousness.

Do carrots belong in Bolognese? ›

Why add carrots to a Bolognese sauce? Carrots along with celery and onion are part of the soffrito that helps season the sauce. The natural sweetness of the carrots helps build the complex flavor profile associated with a bolognese sauce.

Do you simmer Bolognese with lid on or off? ›

The key to a delicious bolognese is allowing the mince to simmer with the lid on for a minimum of 90mins . This not only allows the beef to soak up all those gorgeous flavours, but keeps it mouthwateringly tender. As there is a fair load of tomato in this recipe it's crucial to allow the bolognese to naturally thicken.

What herbs go into a Bolognese sauce? ›

For the herbs and spices for the bolgonese tomato sauce: you'll need chopped basil or dried basil, dried oregano, bay leaves, and optionally fennel seeds, and a pinch of red pepper flakes.

Do they put meat in spaghetti in Italy? ›

Spaghetti sauce is not limited to just one kind of meat. Here in the U.S., we often think spaghetti is limited to meatballs or ground beef, but in Italy you can find ragu using braised beef, lamb, chicken, fish, veal, or pork.

What is the difference between bolognese and Napoli sauce? ›

The main difference is linked to the different cut of meat used in the preparation. Bolognese ragù is made with minced meat, Neapolitan ragù with pieces of whole meat.

What veg bulks out spaghetti bolognese? ›


But it can also help bulk up the sauce and stretch your Bolognese. Veggies such as carrots, peas and celery are good options to include. Since mince is arguably this most costly item in a Bolognese, you could skip it altogether and opt for a vegetarian version.

Why do you put celery in Bolognese? ›

In traditional Italian bolognese recipes, celery is often included as one of the "soffrito" ingredients, along with onions and carrots, which are sautéed in olive oil as a base for the sauce. Celery adds a slightly sweet and earthy flavor to the sauce and can also help balance out the acidity of the tomatoes.

When should you add milk to Bolognese? ›

In our favourite Bolognese recipe we add milk right at the end and then simmer our sauce for another 45 minutes, and it results in a really silky sauce.

Do Italians put carrots in sauce? ›

This is my Nonna's Italian Pasta Sauce recipe and it is filled with fresh herbs and Italian tomatoes. The addition of carrots gives the sauce the perfect amount of sweetness without needing sugar.

Why do Italians put sugar in spaghetti? ›

The reason for sprinkling a pinch of sugar into a simmering saucepan of tomatoes is simple: sugar cuts the acidity of the tomatoes and creates an overall more balanced sauce.

Do you use brown or white sugar in Bolognese? ›

Don't skip the brown sugar.

Adding a bit of sugar to your homemade spaghetti sauce helps to cut the natural acidity of the tomatoes and helps to balance the sauce. For an extra kick, add a sprinkling of red pepper flakes to your sauce.

What makes bolognese taste better? ›

6 Things That'll Make Your Spaghetti Bolognese Taste SO Much...
  1. Milk. Adding milk to Bolognese is actually a part of the traditional method. ...
  2. Sundried Tomatoes. I can't get enough of sundried toms, and I have been known to sneak a few straight from the jar (boujee snack alert). ...
  3. Anchovies. ...
  4. Wine. ...
  5. Porcini mushrooms. ...
  6. Sugar.
Nov 20, 2019

What veg to add to bolognese? ›

You can add all the veggies you like, but the most important ones are celery, onion and carrot - and mushrooms. Those umami mushrooms are so goooood in a bolognese. I often add red bell peppers too. The celery, onion, carrot trio are usually finely chopped, but I like to keep the texture.

Why does bolognese taste better the longer you cook it? ›

It's a well known fact spag bol is more tasty after sitting for a few hours. Collagen in meat breaks down into gelatine at temperatures between 71 and 96°C. A stew that's been bubbling on the stove will continue to break down its collagen for half an hour after you take it off the heat.

What do Italians call ragù? ›

The correct equivalent in Italy would be salsa bruna, or brown sauce. May be similar to the French sauce espagnole. Translating gravy with ragu is confusing since it implies tomatoes, and salsa alone is too generic.

Is Bolognese better with pasta or spaghetti? ›

Pair Bolognese with the Correct Noodle

Ragú Bolognese is rich and savory, but gentle and silky, too—it's perfect for coating tender egg pasta. In Italy, this sauce is most often served with tagliatelle, and it clings to the noodles seductively.

What does ragù mean in Italian? ›

noun. [ masculine ] /ra'ɡu/ meat sauce. spaghetti al ragù spaghetti with meat sauce.

What kind of bread goes with bolognese? ›

Garlic bread

Of course, if you have the time then you can make your own from scratch, but don't be scared to take a few shortcuts that will make life easier! I prefer a baguette style bread so it can be used for scooping up the sauces, though you might want to choose a pizza style bread if you fancy a bit of a change.

What kind of onion goes in Bolognese? ›

White or yellow, whatever, it's your call. Just don't use red, because the only thing red onions are good for is salad. Anyway, toss the onion into the oil and stir it around for a few minutes. Two or three should do it.

Which wine is best for Bolognese? ›

Pasta Bolognese pairs best with red wines high in acidity and tannin such as Barolo, Pinot Noir, Dolcetto, Primitivo, Nero d'Avola and Chianti Classico. Bolognese sauce is a thick meat-based red sauce that features tomatoes, however, meat is the true star of the show.

Do you put peppers in Bolognese? ›

  1. 2 Small Sized (120g) Onions.
  2. 1 Medium Sized (160g) Red Pepper.
  3. 5 Large Sized (100g) Mushrooms.
  4. 2 (6g) Garlic Cloves or 1 Teaspoon (5g) Garlic Puree.
  5. 1 Tablespoons (10g) Vegetable Oil.
  6. ½ Pack (200g) Lean Minced Beef.
  7. 2 Tins (800g) Chopped or Plum Tomatoes.
  8. 2 Teaspoons (2g) Dried Mixed Herbs.

Do they call it gravy in Italy? ›

Here's the gist: the two ways Italians say “sauce” in Italian are salsa and/or sugo. Both words translate as “sauce” but never as “gravy.” Ragù doesn't even translate as “gravy” but comes close enough since it involves meat which is what people really mean when they say “gravy” (my personal opinion).

What do New Yorkers call pasta sauce? ›

Some people think only New Yorkers or pre-WWII immigrants say gravy and that more recent immigrants say sauce. Both camps insist only “real” Italians say the word they use.

What is the diff between marinara and Bolognese sauce? ›

The primary difference between this American bolognese and marinara sauce is the inclusion of meat. Marinara sauce tends to have a small number of vegan ingredients.

Who invented Bolognese sauce? ›

It is thought that the birth of the original recipe for Ragu alla Bolognese can be traced back to the end of the 1700s. It was then that Alberto Alvisi, the chef of the Cardial of Imola, cooked the first real tomato-based meat sauce, which was served with a plate of macaroni pasta.

What is the difference between ragù and Bolognese? ›

They're not the same. In Italian, “Ragù” is a hearty meat sauce made of ground meat, vegetables, wine and some tomatoes. “Bolognese” is also a meat sauce, but it's a regional variation prepared in the style of Bologna hence the name: Ragù Bolognese.

What is the difference between Bolognese sauce and spaghetti sauce? ›

Typically, spaghetti sauce is a meatless tomato sauce, while bolognese sauce is a meat based sauce made with ground beef.

What does Bolognese mean in Italian? ›

adjective. of or relating to Bologna or its inhabitants. Italian Cooking. served with a cream sauce typically containing prosciutto, ground beef, and cheese.

Do Italians put cheese on bolognese? ›

You must put some cheese on top of it! Of course a great plate of tagliatelle al ragù is not completed without fresh grated cheese on top of it, but not any cheese, Parmigiano is the only one accepted!

What does milk do in Bolognese? ›

According to our Food Director Amira, not only does milk add a rich flavour to the bolognese, but it also helps cut through the acidity of the tomatoes and red wine. It also makes the mince meat nice and tender, creating that melt-in-your-mouth deliciousness.

What pasta shape is best for Ragù Bolognese? ›

For Meat Sauces

Known as Bolognese in Italy, these classic slow-simmered sauces are often a Sunday treat at Nonna's house. If you want to best capture these hearty sauces, serve them with traditional tube-shaped pasta—like Rigatoni and Tortiglioni—or deep scoopable shapes like Shells and Orecchiette.

What is Bolognese called in America? ›

The term 'Spaghetti Bolognese' is often used for a dish made outside of Italy. I had it in Tokyo at a cafe' to find out what it is. It turned out be spaghetti in a tomato-rich sauce with ground meat cooked in. It wasn't really much like a sauce that Italians would call a 'ragu bolognese'.

What is a person from Bologna called? ›

Bologna Bulåggna (Emilian)
Area code0039 051
Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
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